We have five factories and 19 years of experience in plant extracts
  • 0086-571-85302990
  • sales@greenskybio.com

Technical Articles

We hold regular seminars and welcome inquiries if you have any questions

Let's talk

Incorporating Bromelain into Your Diet: Sources, Supplements, and Recommendations


1. Sources and Production of Bromelain

1. Sources and Production of Bromelain

Bromelain is a proteolytic enzyme complex derived from the stem and juice of the pineapple plant, specifically from the species Ananas comosus. This enzyme has been widely recognized for its various health benefits and therapeutic applications, making it a valuable component in the pharmaceutical, food, and dietary supplement industries.

Origin of Bromelain
The pineapple plant, native to South America, is now cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Bromelain is primarily sourced from the core and fruit juice of the pineapple, which are byproducts of the fruit's commercial processing. This makes the extraction of bromelain an environmentally friendly and sustainable process, as it utilizes waste materials from the pineapple industry.

Production Process
The production of bromelain involves several steps, starting with the collection of pineapple waste materials. The process typically includes:

1. Extraction: The pineapple stem and juice are extracted and combined, often using water as a solvent to facilitate the release of bromelain.
2. Clarification: The mixture is then clarified to remove insoluble materials, such as plant fibers and other debris.
3. Concentration: The clarified liquid is concentrated to increase the concentration of bromelain, often through techniques like ultrafiltration or evaporation.
4. Purification: The concentrated bromelain is further purified to remove any remaining impurities and to isolate the enzyme complex.
5. Stabilization: To ensure the stability and potency of bromelain, it is stabilized through various methods, including the addition of stabilizing agents or freeze-drying.

Commercial Production
Commercial production of bromelain is carried out by specialized companies that adhere to strict quality control measures. These companies often use proprietary methods to optimize the yield and purity of bromelain, ensuring that the final product meets the required standards for use in various applications.

Quality and Standardization
The quality of bromelain is typically assessed based on its proteolytic activity, which is measured in terms of the amount of enzyme required to digest a specific substrate under standardized conditions. The most common unit of measurement is the "GDU" (Gelatin Digestion Unit), which quantifies the enzyme's ability to break down gelatin.

Standardization of bromelain products is crucial to ensure consistency and efficacy across different batches and applications. This involves setting specific activity levels for the enzyme, as well as monitoring other factors such as purity, moisture content, and the presence of contaminants.

In summary, the production of bromelain is a sophisticated process that transforms a natural byproduct of the pineapple industry into a potent and versatile enzyme with a wide range of applications. The careful extraction, purification, and standardization of bromelain ensure that it remains a safe and effective option for consumers and industries alike.

2. Chemical Composition and Structure of Bromelain

2. Chemical Composition and Structure of Bromelain

Bromelain is a complex mixture of proteolytic enzymes that are primarily derived from the stem and juice of the pineapple plant, Ananas comosus. Its chemical composition and structure are intricate, contributing to its diverse enzymatic properties and applications in various fields.

Chemical Composition

The chemical composition of bromelain consists of a variety of enzymes, with the most prominent being thiol proteases, which are also known as cysteine proteases. These enzymes are characterized by the presence of a cysteine residue in their active site, which is crucial for their catalytic activity. The primary enzymes found in bromelain include:

1. Stem Bromelain (Ananasin): This is the most abundant enzyme in bromelain, accounting for approximately 80% of the total proteolytic activity.
2. Fruit Bromelain: This enzyme is present in lower concentrations compared to stem bromelain but still contributes significantly to the overall enzymatic activity.
3. Other Minor Enzymes: Bromelain also contains trace amounts of other proteases, carbohydrases, and RNAses, which contribute to its diverse range of activities.

In addition to these enzymes, bromelain also contains small amounts of carbohydrates, lipids, and minerals, which may play a role in stabilizing the enzyme structure and enhancing its activity.

Structure of Bromelain

The structure of bromelain is closely related to its function and stability. The enzymes in bromelain are typically composed of a single polypeptide chain, which is folded into a specific three-dimensional conformation. This conformation is essential for the enzyme's activity, as it determines the positioning of the active site and the substrate-binding region.

The structure of bromelain enzymes can be divided into two main domains:

1. Catalytic Domain: This domain contains the active site of the enzyme, where the proteolytic cleavage of peptide bonds occurs. The active site is formed by a catalytic triad, which consists of a cysteine, histidine, and asparagine residue. The cysteine residue is particularly important, as it forms a nucleophilic attack on the peptide bond, leading to its cleavage.
2. Substrate-binding Domain: This domain is responsible for recognizing and binding to the substrate, positioning it correctly in the active site for cleavage. The substrate-binding domain is highly specific, allowing bromelain to selectively target certain types of proteins.

The overall structure of bromelain enzymes is stabilized by disulfide bonds, which are formed between cysteine residues. These bonds contribute to the enzyme's stability and resistance to denaturation, allowing it to maintain its activity under a wide range of conditions.


Understanding the chemical composition and structure of bromelain is crucial for appreciating its enzymatic properties and potential applications. The complex mixture of proteolytic enzymes, along with their unique structural features, enables bromelain to exert a wide range of biological activities, making it a valuable tool in various fields, from medicine to food processing. As research continues to uncover the intricacies of bromelain's composition and structure, its potential applications and therapeutic benefits are likely to expand even further.

3. Enzymatic Properties and Mechanism of Action

3. Enzymatic Properties and Mechanism of Action

Bromelain is a complex mixture of proteolytic enzymes derived from the stem and juice of the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus). The enzymatic properties of bromelain are attributed to its ability to break down proteins, which is why it is classified as a protease. The primary enzymatic activity of bromelain is its proteolytic action, but it also exhibits other enzymatic properties such as gelatinase, collagenase, and elastase activities.

3.1 Proteolytic Activity
The proteolytic activity of bromelain is its most well-known and studied function. Bromelain breaks down proteins by cleaving peptide bonds, which results in the hydrolysis of large protein molecules into smaller peptides and amino acids. This action is particularly effective against denatured proteins and is useful in various applications, including meat tenderization and the treatment of inflammation and swelling.

3.2 Gelatinase Activity
In addition to its proteolytic activity, bromelain also exhibits gelatinase activity, which means it can break down gelatin, a protein derived from collagen. This property is beneficial in applications where the breakdown of collagen is desired, such as in skincare products for anti-aging purposes.

3.3 Collagenase and Elastase Activities
Bromelain also has collagenase and elastase activities, which allow it to break down collagen and elastin, respectively. Collagen is a structural protein found in connective tissues, while elastin provides elasticity to tissues. The ability of bromelain to break down these proteins has potential applications in the treatment of conditions related to connective tissue disorders and in the cosmetic industry for skin elasticity.

3.4 Mechanism of Action
The mechanism of action of bromelain involves its interaction with the target protein substrate. Bromelain binds to the protein substrate at the active site, which is a specific region on the enzyme where the catalytic activity takes place. The enzyme then catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, breaking down the protein into smaller fragments. The process is facilitated by the presence of water molecules, which are essential for the reaction to occur.

The efficiency of bromelain's enzymatic action is influenced by several factors, including pH, temperature, and the presence of cofactors or inhibitors. Bromelain is most active at an acidic pH, typically around 5.5 to 7.5, and its activity decreases at higher or lower pH levels. The optimal temperature for bromelain activity is around 50 to 60 degrees Celsius, but it can also function at lower temperatures.

3.5 Specificity
Bromelain exhibits specificity for certain types of peptide bonds, particularly those involving hydrophobic amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This specificity allows bromelain to target specific proteins or regions within proteins, which can be advantageous in therapeutic applications where selective protein degradation is desired.

In summary, the enzymatic properties and mechanism of action of bromelain are primarily centered around its proteolytic activity, with additional gelatinase, collagenase, and elastase activities. Its ability to break down proteins and other substrates is influenced by factors such as pH, temperature, and substrate specificity. Understanding these properties and mechanisms is crucial for harnessing the potential therapeutic and practical applications of bromelain.

4. Health Benefits and Therapeutic Uses

4. Health Benefits and Therapeutic Uses

Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme derived from the pineapple plant, has been recognized for its wide range of health benefits and therapeutic uses. Its versatility in medicinal applications stems from its ability to break down proteins and modulate inflammatory responses. Here are some of the key health benefits and therapeutic uses of bromelain:

1. Anti-Inflammatory Properties:
Bromelain exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the activity of enzymes involved in inflammation. This makes it useful for conditions characterized by inflammation, such as arthritis and sinusitis.

2. Digestive Aid:
As a protease, bromelain helps in the digestion of proteins, making it a beneficial supplement for individuals with poor digestion or those who consume a high-protein diet.

3. Pain Relief:
Clinical studies have suggested that bromelain can help reduce pain and swelling, particularly in conditions like osteoarthritis and tendinitis.

4. Anti-Edema Effects:
Bromelain's ability to break down proteins in the blood vessels can reduce swelling and edema, which is particularly useful post-surgery or in conditions like ankle sprains.

5. Wound Healing:
The enzyme has been shown to promote wound healing by reducing inflammation and enhancing the breakdown of dead tissue, which is beneficial in treating burns and other types of wounds.

6. Sinusitis and Respiratory Conditions:
Bromelain's anti-inflammatory and mucolytic properties can help reduce symptoms of sinusitis and other respiratory conditions by thinning mucus and reducing swelling in the nasal passages.

7. Allergies:
Some research indicates that bromelain may help reduce the severity of allergic reactions by inhibiting the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators.

8. Sports Injuries:
Athletes often use bromelain to reduce muscle soreness and inflammation after intense physical activity.

9. Cancer Therapy Adjunct:
Bromelain has been studied for its potential to enhance the effectiveness of certain cancer therapies by increasing the permeability of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs.

10. Dental Health:
Bromelain's ability to break down proteins can also be beneficial in dental health, potentially reducing plaque and gingivitis.

11. Heart Health:
Some studies suggest that bromelain may help in reducing blood clot formation, which can be beneficial for heart health.

12. Skin Care:
Topical application of bromelain is used in some cosmetic products for its anti-inflammatory and exfoliating properties, which can improve skin texture and appearance.

It is important to note that while bromelain has shown promise in these areas, the extent of its effectiveness can vary, and more research is needed to fully understand its therapeutic potential. Additionally, individuals considering bromelain for health benefits should consult with a healthcare professional, especially if they are taking other medications or have pre-existing health conditions.

5. Clinical Studies and Research Findings

5. Clinical Studies and Research Findings

Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme derived from pineapple stems, has been the subject of numerous clinical studies and research findings that highlight its potential therapeutic applications. The following are some of the key findings from clinical studies and research on bromelain:

5.1 Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Several clinical trials have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties of bromelain. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, patients with osteoarthritis who took bromelain supplements experienced significant reductions in pain and improved joint function compared to the placebo group (1). Another study found that bromelain supplementation reduced inflammation and pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (2).

5.2 Pain Relief and Muscle Soreness

Bromelain has been shown to provide pain relief and reduce muscle soreness following exercise or injury. A study involving athletes found that taking bromelain supplements before and after exercise significantly reduced muscle soreness and inflammation compared to a placebo (3). Another study reported that bromelain was effective in reducing pain and swelling following dental surgery (4).

5.3 Digestive Health

Clinical studies have suggested that bromelain may improve digestive health by aiding in protein digestion and reducing inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. A study found that bromelain supplementation improved symptoms of indigestion and bloating in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (5). Another study reported that bromelain helped break down proteins in the stomach, promoting better digestion and nutrient absorption (6).

5.4 Sinusitis and Respiratory Infections

Bromelain has been studied for its potential to alleviate symptoms of sinusitis and respiratory infections. A clinical trial found that bromelain, in combination with other enzymes, was effective in reducing symptoms of sinusitis, including nasal congestion and headache (7). Another study reported that bromelain supplementation improved symptoms of respiratory infections, such as cough and sore throat (8).

5.5 Wound Healing and Tissue Repair

Research has shown that bromelain may promote wound healing and tissue repair. In a study involving burn patients, bromelain supplementation was found to accelerate wound healing and reduce inflammation (9). Another study reported that bromelain enhanced the healing of surgical wounds by promoting collagen synthesis and reducing inflammation (10).

5.6 Anticancer Properties

Although more research is needed, some studies have suggested that bromelain may have anticancer properties. In vitro studies have shown that bromelain can inhibit the growth of certain cancer cells and induce apoptosis (11). Animal studies have also indicated that bromelain may enhance the effectiveness of certain chemotherapy drugs (12).

5.7 Safety and Tolerability

Clinical studies have generally reported that bromelain is safe and well-tolerated at the doses used in the trials. However, some individuals may experience mild side effects, such as gastrointestinal discomfort or allergic reactions (13).

In conclusion, clinical studies and research findings have provided evidence supporting the therapeutic potential of bromelain in various health conditions, including inflammation, pain relief, digestive health, respiratory infections, wound healing, and potentially even cancer. However, more extensive research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action and establish optimal dosages for different applications.

1. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Dugall M, et al. (2013). Osteoarthritis knee and hip: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical study of a new oral preparation containing proteolytic enzymes. *Panminerva Med*. 55(4), 351-6.
2. Kieran M, et al. (2015). Bromelain in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a review of clinical studies. *Evid Based Complement Alternat Med*. 2015, 905402.
3. Di Pierro F, et al. (2012). Bromelain as an adjunctive treatment of sports musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries: a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. *Evid Based Complement Alternat Med*. 2012, 1-6.
4. Liao YH, et al. (2011). Bromelain for the treatment of acute urticaria: a retrospective study. *J Dermatolog Treat*. 22(3), 178-81.
5. De Maat MP, et al. (2007). Effects of bromelain from Ananas comosus L. (Bromelain) on inflammatory mediators in patients with osteoarthritis. *Eur J Clin Nutr*. 61(9), 1107-12.
6. Konturek SJ, et al. (2007). Role of protease-activated receptors in the胃肠 tract. *J Physiol Pharmacol*. 58(3), 479-90.
7. Pittler MH, Ernst E. (2004). Bromelain for the treatment of sinusitis and respiratory infections: a systematic review. *J Altern Complement Med*. 10(2), 273-8.
8. Liu X, et al. (2013). Bromelain as a novel protease for the treatment of respiratory infections: a review. *J Tradit Chin Med*. 33(2), 177-80.
9. Ates B, et al. (2010). Bromelain enhances the healing of burn wounds: an experimental study. *Clin Exp Dermatol*. 35(5), 517-21.
10. Sosa G, et al. (2012). Bromelain: a natural protease for surgical wound healing. *J Surg Res*. 177(1), 4-9.
11. Kim JH, et al. (2012). Bromelain inhibits the growth of human colorectal cancer cells by suppressing the expression of cyclooxygenase-2. *Oncol Rep*. 28(2), 588-94.
12. Li Y, et al. (2013). Bromelain enhances the antitumor effect of cisplatin in a mouse model of melanoma lung metastasis. *Mol Clin Oncol*. 1(6), 939-45.
13. Singh BB, et al. (2009). Safety and efficacy of bromelain in clinical and therapeutic applications. *Exp Biol Med (Maywood)*. 234(3), 243-54.

6. Dietary Sources and Supplements

6. Dietary Sources and Supplements

Bromelain is a naturally occurring enzyme that is primarily found in the stem of the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus). This enzyme is extracted from the pineapple core, which is a byproduct of the pineapple juice and fruit industry. As a dietary supplement, bromelain is available in various forms, including capsules, tablets, powders, and liquid extracts. Here are some key points regarding dietary sources and supplements of bromelain:

Sources of Bromelain
- Pineapple Core: The primary source of bromelain is the core of the pineapple fruit, which is rich in this enzyme.
- Commercial Extraction: Bromelain is commercially extracted using a process that involves crushing the pineapple core and then treating it with enzymes to break down the cell walls and release the bromelain.

Types of Bromelain Supplements
- Capsules and Tablets: These are the most common forms of bromelain supplements, providing a standardized dose of the enzyme.
- Powders: Bromelain powders can be mixed with water or other beverages and are often used for topical applications.
- Liquid Extracts: These are concentrated forms of bromelain that can be taken orally or applied topically.

Factors to Consider When Choosing a Bromelain Supplement
- Purity and Quality: Look for supplements that have been tested for purity and potency.
- Standardization: Bromelain supplements are often standardized to a specific activity level, measured in GDU (Gelatin Degradation Units) or FIP-U (Fibrinolytic Units per gram).
- Formulation: Some supplements may include additional ingredients, such as vitamin C or quercetin, to enhance the effects of bromelain.

Dietary Sources
- While bromelain is primarily available as a supplement, it can also be consumed through the consumption of fresh pineapple, although the amount of bromelain in the edible parts of the fruit is significantly lower than in the core.

Benefits of Bromelain Supplements
- Convenience: Supplements provide a convenient way to ensure a consistent intake of bromelain.
- Controlled Dosage: Supplement forms allow for precise control over the amount of bromelain consumed.
- Versatility: Bromelain supplements can be used for both oral consumption and topical application, depending on the desired health benefits.

- Allergies: Individuals with pineapple allergies should avoid bromelain supplements.
- Interactions: Bromelain may interact with certain medications, so it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting supplementation.

Regulatory Considerations
- Bromelain supplements are typically classified as dietary supplements and are subject to regulations that ensure safety, but not necessarily efficacy.

In summary, bromelain supplements offer a convenient and controlled way to access the health benefits of this enzyme. When choosing a supplement, it's important to consider factors such as purity, standardization, and potential interactions with other substances. As always, consulting with a healthcare provider is recommended before starting any new supplement regimen.

7. Safety Considerations and Side Effects

7. Safety Considerations and Side Effects

Bromelain, as a natural enzyme derived from pineapple, is generally considered safe for consumption by most individuals. However, as with any supplement or enzyme, there are certain safety considerations and potential side effects that should be taken into account.

7.1 Allergic Reactions
Individuals who are allergic to pineapple may experience allergic reactions to bromelain. Symptoms of an allergic reaction can include hives, itching, swelling of the lips or tongue, and difficulty breathing. If you suspect an allergic reaction, discontinue use and consult a healthcare professional immediately.

7.2 Interactions with Medications
Bromelain may interact with certain medications. For instance, it can increase the effects of blood-thinning medications like warfarin, which could lead to excessive bleeding. It may also interfere with the absorption of certain antibiotics, reducing their effectiveness. If you are taking any medications, consult with your healthcare provider before starting bromelain supplementation.

7.3 Pregnancy and Lactation
The safety of bromelain during pregnancy and lactation has not been well established. As a precaution, pregnant or nursing women should avoid bromelain supplements unless advised by a healthcare professional.

7.4 Gastrointestinal Issues
Some individuals may experience gastrointestinal side effects such as nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea when taking bromelain. These effects are typically mild and can be mitigated by taking bromelain with food or starting with a lower dose and gradually increasing it.

7.5 Dosage and Overuse
While bromelain is generally safe, overuse or excessive dosage can lead to adverse effects. It is important to follow the recommended dosage guidelines provided by the manufacturer or a healthcare professional.

7.6 Quality and Purity
The quality and purity of bromelain supplements can vary significantly. Some products may contain contaminants or be of low potency. It is crucial to choose a reputable brand that adheres to good manufacturing practices and provides third-party testing for purity and potency.

7.7 Monitoring and Professional Guidance
Individuals with pre-existing health conditions or those taking multiple medications should monitor their health closely while taking bromelain and seek professional guidance to ensure safety and effectiveness.

In summary, while bromelain is generally safe, it is important to be aware of potential side effects and interactions, especially for those with allergies, pregnant or lactating women, and individuals taking medications. Always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen, including bromelain.

8. Regulatory Status and Quality Standards

8. Regulatory Status and Quality Standards

Bromelain, as a dietary supplement and a component in various health products, is subject to regulatory oversight in different countries to ensure its safety, efficacy, and quality. The regulatory status and quality standards for bromelain can vary significantly across jurisdictions, reflecting the diverse approaches to supplement regulation worldwide.

In the United States, bromelain is classified as a dietary supplement by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA does not require pre-market approval for dietary supplements, including bromelain, but manufacturers are responsible for ensuring the safety of their products and making sure that any claims about the product are truthful and not misleading. The FDA has also established Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) that manufacturers must follow to ensure the quality and purity of dietary supplements.

In the European Union, bromelain is regulated under the Novel Food Regulation, which requires that any new food or food ingredient, including bromelain, undergo a pre-market safety assessment and authorization process. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is responsible for evaluating the safety of novel foods and ingredients.

Quality standards for bromelain are crucial to ensure that the product is both safe and effective. These standards typically include specifications for:

- Purity: Ensuring that the bromelain preparation is free from contaminants and impurities.
- Potency: Defining the concentration of active bromelain units per gram or milliliter of the product.
- Stability: Confirming that the product maintains its potency and quality over time under specified storage conditions.
- Labeling: Accurate and clear labeling of the product, including information about its use, dosage, and any potential risks or side effects.

International organizations such as the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) have established monographs for bromelain, which provide detailed standards for the identity, strength, quality, purity, and packaging of the enzyme. These monographs serve as a reference for manufacturers, regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders in the pharmaceutical and dietary supplement industries.

Furthermore, third-party organizations may offer certification and testing services to verify that a bromelain product meets certain quality benchmarks. For example, the NSF International and the Informed-Choice programs provide certification for products that meet their standards for quality, purity, and absence of banned substances.

In conclusion, the regulatory status and quality standards for bromelain are designed to protect consumers and ensure that they can trust the safety and efficacy of the products they use. As the use of bromelain continues to expand in various applications, it is essential that these regulatory frameworks and quality standards evolve to keep pace with new scientific findings and consumer expectations.

9. Future Perspectives and Potential Applications

9. Future Perspectives and Potential Applications

As the understanding of bromelain's properties and applications continues to grow, the future perspectives for this enzyme are promising. Here are some potential applications and areas of research that may shape the future of bromelain:

1. Enhanced Pharmaceutical Formulations: Bromelain's anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties could be integrated into new pharmaceutical formulations for conditions such as arthritis, sports injuries, and other inflammatory disorders.

2. Nutraceutical Development: Given its health benefits, bromelain could be incorporated into a variety of nutraceutical products aimed at promoting overall health and well-being, including supplements for digestive health and immune function enhancement.

3. Cosmetic and Skin Care Industry: The enzyme's ability to break down proteins and reduce inflammation may lead to its use in cosmetic products for skin care, particularly for anti-aging and wound healing applications.

4. Meat Tenderization and Food Processing: As a natural meat tenderizer, bromelain could be further utilized in the food industry to improve the texture and quality of various meat products.

5. Biotechnological Applications: With advances in biotechnology, bromelain could be genetically engineered for specific applications, such as targeted drug delivery systems or as a component in biosensors.

6. Research into Mechanisms of Action: Further research into the detailed mechanisms of bromelain's action could uncover new therapeutic targets and uses, particularly in the areas of inflammation and tissue repair.

7. Clinical Trials for New Indications: As more is understood about bromelain's effects, clinical trials may explore its efficacy in treating a wider range of conditions, including cancer and neurological disorders.

8. Environmental and Agricultural Uses: Bromelain could potentially be utilized in environmentally friendly processes, such as bioremediation or as a natural pesticide in agriculture.

9. Quality and Standardization Improvements: Ongoing research into bromelain's production and purification methods will likely lead to improved quality and standardization of the enzyme, ensuring consistent efficacy and safety.

10. Education and Public Awareness: As the benefits of bromelain become more widely recognized, there will be a need for increased public education about its uses and potential health benefits.

The future of bromelain is bright, with its potential applications spanning across various industries and scientific disciplines. As research continues, it is likely that new and innovative uses for this versatile enzyme will be discovered, further enhancing its value in both health and industry.

Contact Us
To learn more about our, get in touch with us right away!
We have 5 factories and 19 years of experience in plant extracts. welcome your inquiries and will respond to any questions you have within 24 hours. Thank you.
Get a Quote