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how to extract medicine from plants

2023-09-26



1. Historical Context of Plant-Based Medicines

1. Historical Context of Plant-Based Medicines

The use of plant-based medicines dates back thousands of years to the earliest human civilizations. Ancient cultures, such as the Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Chinese, and Native Americans, all relied heavily on plants for their medicinal properties. These early societies had a deep understanding of the natural world and recognized the healing potential of various plants.

Ancient Egypt
In ancient Egypt, plants were used for a wide range of ailments. The Ebers Papyrus, an Egyptian medical document dating back to 1550 BCE, contains over 700 prescriptions for various diseases, many of which include plant-based remedies. For example, willow bark was used to alleviate pain and reduce fever, a practice that foreshadows the modern use of aspirin, which is derived from the same plant.

Greece and Rome
The Greeks and Romans also had a profound knowledge of medicinal plants. The Greek physician Hippocrates, known as the "Father of Medicine," advocated for the use of natural remedies, including plants, to treat illnesses. Roman physician and naturalist Pliny the Elder wrote extensively about the medicinal properties of plants in his work "Naturalis Historia."

China
In China, the use of plant-based medicines is deeply rooted in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The "Shennong Bencao Jing," or "The Divine Farmer's Materia Medica," is an ancient text that lists over 300 medicinal herbs and their uses. TCM continues to be a significant part of healthcare in China and has influenced the development of plant-based medicine worldwide.

Native American Cultures
Native American cultures also had a rich tradition of using plants for medicinal purposes. They developed a deep understanding of the local flora and their healing properties, passing this knowledge down through generations. Many of these traditional remedies are still in use today, such as the use of echinacea for immune support and ginseng for energy and vitality.

The Middle Ages and Beyond
During the Middle Ages, the use of plant-based medicines continued to evolve, with monasteries often serving as centers for the cultivation and study of medicinal herbs. However, the advent of modern medicine in the 19th and 20th centuries led to a decline in the use of plant-based remedies in the Western world.

Revival and Modern Integration
In recent decades, there has been a resurgence of interest in plant-based medicines, driven by a desire for more natural and holistic approaches to healthcare. Today, many modern drugs are derived from or inspired by plant compounds, such as the antimalarial drug artemisinin, which is derived from the sweet wormwood plant.

The historical context of plant-based medicines highlights the enduring value of these natural remedies and the importance of preserving and building upon the knowledge of our ancestors. As we continue to explore the potential of plants for healing, we must also consider the ethical and environmental implications of plant harvesting and strive to develop sustainable and responsible practices.



2. Ethnobotany: The Study of Plant Uses by Indigenous Cultures

2. Ethnobotany: The Study of Plant Uses by Indigenous Cultures

Ethnobotany is a fascinating field of study that explores the relationship between plants and the indigenous cultures that have used them for medicinal, dietary, and other purposes throughout history. This discipline is a blend of botany, anthropology, and pharmacology, focusing on the traditional knowledge and practices of indigenous peoples regarding plants.

Indigenous Knowledge and Plant Medicines

Indigenous cultures around the world have developed a deep understanding of their local flora through generations of observation and experimentation. This knowledge has been passed down through oral traditions, rituals, and practices, forming a rich tapestry of ethnobotanical wisdom. Indigenous peoples have identified plants with medicinal properties, often long before Western science has been able to isolate and understand the active compounds within them.

The Role of Shamans and Healers

In many indigenous societies, shamans and traditional healers play a crucial role in the preservation and application of ethnobotanical knowledge. These individuals are often responsible for identifying medicinal plants, preparing remedies, and treating ailments within their communities. Their extensive knowledge of the local flora and the spiritual aspects of healing are invaluable resources in the study of plant-based medicines.

Ethnobotanical Research and Documentation

As interest in natural medicine and sustainable practices grows, so too does the importance of ethnobotanical research. Documenting the traditional uses of plants by indigenous cultures not only helps to preserve this knowledge for future generations but also provides a wealth of information for modern scientists and researchers. Ethnobotanists work closely with indigenous communities to learn from their expertise and to study the plants they use.

Challenges and Opportunities

While ethnobotany offers a wealth of information on plant uses, it also faces several challenges. The loss of biodiversity, cultural assimilation, and the commercialization of traditional knowledge can threaten the preservation of ethnobotanical wisdom. However, there are also opportunities for collaboration between indigenous communities and researchers to promote the sustainable use of plant resources and to develop new medicines based on traditional knowledge.

The Importance of Respect and Collaboration

Respect for indigenous cultures and their knowledge is paramount in ethnobotanical research. It is essential to approach these communities with a spirit of collaboration and to ensure that any benefits derived from their knowledge are shared equitably. This includes recognizing the intellectual property rights of indigenous peoples and involving them in decision-making processes related to the use of their traditional knowledge.

Conclusion

Ethnobotany is a vital field that bridges the gap between traditional knowledge and modern science. By studying the plant uses of indigenous cultures, we can gain insights into the potential medicinal properties of plants and develop new treatments for a variety of ailments. Moreover, it is a way to honor and preserve the rich cultural heritage of indigenous peoples, ensuring that their wisdom and knowledge continue to be valued and utilized for generations to come.



3. Types of Medicinal Plants and Their Uses

3. Types of Medicinal Plants and Their Uses

Medicinal plants have been the cornerstone of traditional medicine for thousands of years, offering a rich source of natural compounds with therapeutic potential. Here, we delve into various types of medicinal plants and their uses across different cultures and medical practices.

Aloe Vera
- Uses: Known for its soothing properties, aloe vera is widely used for skin conditions such as burns, wounds, and sunburn. It is also taken internally for digestive issues and constipation.

Ginseng
- Uses: Ginseng is revered for its energy-boosting and stress-relieving properties. It is used to enhance physical performance and improve mental clarity.

Echinacea
- Uses: Often used to support the immune system, echinacea is taken to prevent or reduce the severity and duration of colds, flu, and other infections.

Ginkgo Biloba
- Uses: Ginkgo biloba is used to improve cognitive function, particularly in conditions like Alzheimer's disease and dementia. It also aids in blood circulation, benefiting those with poor peripheral circulation.

St. John's Wort
- Uses: This plant is commonly used for its antidepressant properties, helping to alleviate mild to moderate depression and anxiety.

Valerian Root
- Uses: Valerian is a popular herbal remedy for insomnia and other sleep disorders. It is known for its calming effects on the nervous system.

Turmeric
- Uses: Curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric, has powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It is used for conditions like arthritis and may also have cancer-preventing properties.

Ginger
- Uses: Ginger is a versatile plant with anti-inflammatory and anti-nausea properties. It is used to soothe digestive issues, reduce inflammation, and alleviate symptoms of motion sickness.

Elderberry
- Uses: Rich in antioxidants, elderberry is used to treat colds, flu, and other viral infections. It is also known to boost the immune system.

Mint
- Uses: Mint is used for its cooling and soothing effects on the digestive system. It is also used to alleviate headaches and improve concentration.

Cayenne Pepper
- Uses: Capsaicin, the active component in cayenne pepper, is used for its pain-relieving properties. It is also used to improve circulation and aid in weight loss.

Passionflower
- Uses: Passionflower is used to treat anxiety and insomnia, and it may also help with symptoms of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Yarrow
- Uses: Yarrow has anti-inflammatory properties and is used to treat wounds, reduce fever, and alleviate menstrual pain.

Peppermint
- Uses: Similar to ginger, peppermint is used to soothe the digestive system and alleviate symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Chamomile
- Uses: Chamomile is known for its calming effects and is used to treat insomnia, anxiety, and digestive issues.

Goldenseal
- Uses: Goldenseal is used for its antimicrobial properties, often taken to treat infections of the digestive and respiratory systems.

Licorice Root
- Uses: Licorice root is used for its anti-inflammatory properties and is taken to soothe digestive issues, including ulcers and heartburn.

Sage
- Uses: Sage is used for its memory-enhancing properties and to improve cognitive function. It is also used to alleviate menopausal symptoms.

Willow Bark
- Uses: Willow bark contains salicin, which is similar to aspirin, and is used to relieve pain and reduce inflammation.

Dandelion
- Uses: Dandelion is used for its diuretic properties, helping to cleanse the body of toxins and support liver function.

Each of these plants offers a unique set of compounds that can be extracted and utilized for their medicinal properties. The diversity of medicinal plants underscores the vast potential of nature's pharmacy in treating a wide array of health conditions.



4. The Process of Extracting Medicinal Compounds

4. The Process of Extracting Medicinal Compounds

The process of extracting medicinal compounds from plants is a delicate and intricate procedure that requires a deep understanding of both the plant's chemistry and the desired outcome of the extraction. This process can vary significantly depending on the type of plant, the specific compounds being targeted, and the intended application of the medicine. Here's a detailed look at the general steps involved in this process:

A. Selection of Plant Material
The first step in extracting medicinal compounds is selecting the appropriate plant material. This involves choosing the right species and ensuring that the plant is harvested at the optimal time to maximize the concentration of the desired compounds.

B. Preparation of Plant Material
Once the plant material is harvested, it must be prepared for extraction. This can involve cleaning, drying, and sometimes crushing or grinding the plant to increase the surface area and facilitate the extraction process.

C. Choice of Extraction Solvent
The choice of solvent is critical in the extraction process. Common solvents include water, ethanol, methanol, and other organic solvents. The solvent should be able to dissolve the target compounds without causing degradation or unwanted chemical reactions.

D. Extraction Method
There are several methods used to extract medicinal compounds from plants:

- Maceration: Involves soaking the plant material in a solvent for an extended period, allowing the compounds to dissolve.
- Decoction: A method where the plant material is boiled in water, extracting the compounds.
- Infusion: Similar to decoction but involves steeping the plant material in hot water.
- Cold Extraction: Using cold solvents to extract compounds, which can be less harsh on heat-sensitive compounds.
- Steam Distillation: Particularly useful for extracting volatile oils from plants.
- Supercritical Fluid Extraction: Utilizes supercritical fluids, typically carbon dioxide, to extract compounds at high pressures and temperatures.

E. Concentration and Purification
After the initial extraction, the solution often contains a mixture of compounds. Further steps may be necessary to concentrate the desired compounds and remove impurities. This can involve techniques such as filtration, chromatography, and crystallization.

F. Drying and Formulation
The concentrated extract is then dried to remove the solvent, leaving behind a solid or semi-solid residue. This residue can be formulated into various dosage forms, such as capsules, tablets, or liquid extracts, depending on the intended use.

G. Quality Assessment
Finally, the extracted compounds must be assessed for quality to ensure they are safe, effective, and consistent. This involves testing for purity, potency, and the absence of contaminants.

H. Standardization
To ensure that each batch of medicine is consistent, the extraction process may be standardized to yield a specific amount of active compounds per unit of the final product.

The process of extracting medicinal compounds is a blend of traditional knowledge and modern scientific techniques. It requires careful attention to detail and a commitment to producing high-quality, safe, and effective plant-based medicines.



5. Common Extraction Techniques

5. Common Extraction Techniques

The process of extracting medicinal compounds from plants is a delicate and complex procedure that can significantly impact the potency and efficacy of the resulting medicine. Several common extraction techniques are employed to obtain these valuable compounds, each with its unique advantages and applications. Here are some of the most widely used methods:

1. Maceration:
Maceration is a simple and traditional method where plant material is soaked in a solvent, typically water or alcohol. The mixture is left to stand for a period, allowing the solvent to dissolve the medicinal compounds. This technique is straightforward and requires minimal equipment, making it popular among small-scale producers and traditional healers.

2. Decoction:
Decoction involves boiling plant material in water to extract the active ingredients. This method is particularly useful for extracting compounds that are soluble in hot water. Decoctions are commonly used to prepare herbal teas and infusions.

3. Infusion:
Similar to maceration, infusion is a method where plant material is steeped in a solvent, usually water or alcohol, at room temperature. The process is gentler than decoction and is used to extract more delicate compounds that could be destroyed by heat.

4. Cold Pressing:
Cold pressing is a mechanical method used to extract oils and other compounds from plant material without the application of heat. This technique is particularly suitable for seeds and fruits, such as olives and citrus fruits, to produce cold-pressed oils that retain their natural properties.

5. Steam Distillation:
Steam distillation is a process where steam is passed through plant material, causing the volatile compounds to evaporate. The steam carries these compounds, and they are then condensed and collected. This method is ideal for extracting essential oils and aromatic compounds from plants.

6. Solvent Extraction:
In solvent extraction, a chemical solvent is used to dissolve the desired compounds from the plant material. The solvent can be organic, such as ethanol or acetone, or inorganic, such as water or hexane. After extraction, the solvent is evaporated, leaving behind the concentrated medicinal compounds.

7. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE):
SFE is a modern technique that uses supercritical fluids, typically carbon dioxide, to extract compounds from plant material. The fluid's properties are manipulated to selectively extract desired components. This method is highly efficient and can produce high-quality extracts with minimal degradation of the active compounds.

8. Ultrasonic Extraction:
Ultrasonic extraction utilizes high-frequency sound waves to disrupt plant cells and release the medicinal compounds into the solvent. This method is fast and can improve the extraction yield and quality.

9. Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE):
MAE uses microwave energy to heat the plant material and solvent, accelerating the extraction process. This technique can be more efficient and environmentally friendly compared to traditional methods.

10. Enzymatic Extraction:
Enzymatic extraction employs enzymes to break down plant cell walls and release the medicinal compounds. This method is particularly useful for extracting bioactive compounds that are bound to plant fibers or cell walls.

Each extraction technique has its specific applications and advantages, depending on the type of plant material and the desired compounds. The choice of extraction method can significantly influence the quality and efficacy of the final medicinal product. As the field of plant medicine continues to evolve, researchers and practitioners are continually exploring new and improved extraction techniques to optimize the extraction process and enhance the therapeutic potential of plant-based medicines.



6. Safety Considerations and Quality Control

6. Safety Considerations and Quality Control

The extraction of medicinal compounds from plants is a delicate process that requires stringent safety considerations and quality control measures to ensure the efficacy, safety, and consistency of the final product. Here are some of the key aspects to consider:

6.1 Regulatory Compliance
Manufacturers and researchers must adhere to the regulations and guidelines set by health authorities such as the FDA, EMA, and WHO. This includes Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), and Good Clinical Practices (GCP) to ensure the safety and quality of plant-based medicines.

6.2 Identification and Authentication
Misidentification of plant species can lead to the use of incorrect or potentially harmful plants. Accurate botanical identification and authentication are crucial to prevent such errors. DNA barcoding and chemical fingerprinting are modern techniques used to confirm the identity of plant materials.

6.3 Purity and Contamination Control
Plant materials can be contaminated with microorganisms, pesticides, heavy metals, and other environmental pollutants. Rigorous testing and purification processes are necessary to remove or reduce these contaminants to acceptable levels.

6.4 Standardization of Extracts
Standardization ensures that the medicinal plant product contains a consistent amount of the active compounds. This is achieved through analytical methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the bioactive markers in the extracts.

6.5 Stability and Storage
Medicinal plant extracts can degrade over time, affecting their potency and safety. Proper storage conditions, including temperature, humidity, and light exposure, are essential to maintain the stability of the extracts.

6.6 Toxicity Studies
Before a plant-based medicine can be used, it must undergo extensive toxicological studies to determine safe dosage levels and identify any potential adverse effects.

6.7 Batch Control
Each batch of plant material and final product should be tracked and tested to ensure consistency and to facilitate recalls if necessary.

6.8 Quality Assurance
Regular audits and quality checks are conducted to verify that all steps in the extraction process meet the required standards.

6.9 Ethical Sourcing
Ensuring that plant materials are sourced ethically, without contributing to the depletion of natural resources or harming local communities, is an important part of quality control.

6.10 Consumer Education
Educating consumers about the proper use, dosage, and potential interactions of plant-based medicines is crucial for their safe use.

By implementing these safety considerations and quality control measures, the extraction of medicinal compounds from plants can be a reliable and safe process, leading to the development of effective and high-quality plant-based medicines.



7. Modern Advances in Plant Medicine Extraction

7. Modern Advances in Plant Medicine Extraction

The field of plant medicine extraction has seen significant advancements in recent years, driven by technological progress, scientific research, and a growing interest in natural remedies. These modern advances have not only improved the efficiency and effectiveness of extraction processes but have also broadened our understanding of plant-based medicines. Here are some of the key developments in this area:

7.1 Supercritical Fluid Extraction
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative technique that uses supercritical fluids, typically carbon dioxide, to extract active compounds from plant materials. This method is advantageous because it operates at lower temperatures, which helps preserve heat-sensitive compounds, and it is environmentally friendly, as it does not require the use of toxic solvents.

7.2 Ultrasonic Extraction
Ultrasonic extraction employs high-frequency sound waves to break down plant cell walls, facilitating the release of active compounds. This technique is known for its efficiency, speed, and the ability to extract a wide range of compounds without altering their chemical structures.

7.3 Microwave-Assisted Extraction
Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) uses microwave energy to heat plant materials, which accelerates the extraction process. This method is particularly useful for extracting thermolabile compounds and can be more energy-efficient compared to traditional methods.

7.4 Cold Pressing and Cold Infusion
To preserve the integrity of delicate compounds, cold pressing and cold infusion techniques have been developed. These methods involve applying pressure or soaking plant materials in a solvent at low temperatures, which helps maintain the quality and potency of the extracted compounds.

7.5 Molecular Distillation
Molecular distillation is a separation technique that operates under high vacuum and low temperature conditions. It allows for the isolation of specific compounds based on their molecular weight and volatility, which is particularly useful for purifying complex mixtures.

7.6 Nanotechnology in Plant Medicine Extraction
The integration of nanotechnology in plant medicine extraction has opened up new possibilities for enhancing the bioavailability and targeting of plant-based compounds. Nanoparticles can be used to encapsulate and deliver active ingredients, improving their absorption and effectiveness.

7.7 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
HPLC is a powerful analytical technique used to separate, identify, and quantify compounds in plant extracts. This method has been instrumental in the development of standardized plant medicines, ensuring consistency and quality in natural health products.

7.8 Genomic and Metabolic Profiling
Advancements in genomic and metabolic profiling have allowed researchers to better understand the biosynthetic pathways of plant compounds. This knowledge can be used to optimize extraction processes and enhance the production of bioactive compounds.

7.9 Bioinformatics and Data Analysis
The application of bioinformatics and data analysis tools has facilitated the identification of novel plant-based medicines and the optimization of extraction processes. These tools enable researchers to analyze large datasets and identify patterns that can inform the development of new extraction techniques.

7.10 Sustainable and Green Extraction Technologies
There is a growing focus on developing sustainable and environmentally friendly extraction methods. Green chemistry principles are being incorporated into the design of extraction processes, aiming to minimize waste, reduce energy consumption, and use renewable resources.

These modern advances in plant medicine extraction have not only improved the efficiency and effectiveness of the extraction process but have also contributed to a deeper understanding of the therapeutic potential of plant-based medicines. As research continues, it is expected that even more innovative techniques will be developed, further enhancing our ability to harness the healing power of plants.



8. Ethical and Environmental Impacts of Plant Harvesting

8. Ethical and Environmental Impacts of Plant Harvesting

The extraction of medicinal compounds from plants is not without its ethical and environmental considerations. As the demand for natural remedies grows, so too does the pressure on plant populations and ecosystems. Here are some of the key issues that must be addressed to ensure sustainable and ethical plant harvesting practices:

8.1 Overharvesting and Extinction Risk
One of the primary concerns is overharvesting, which can lead to the depletion of plant species and even extinction. Certain plants, such as ginseng and goldenseal, have been overharvested to the point where they are now endangered. It is crucial to implement sustainable harvesting practices and to cultivate these plants in controlled environments to reduce the pressure on wild populations.

8.2 Biodiversity Loss
The loss of biodiversity is another significant impact of plant harvesting. When certain plant species are overharvested, it can disrupt the balance of an ecosystem, affecting other species and the overall health of the environment. Efforts must be made to preserve biodiversity by protecting habitats and promoting the sustainable use of plant resources.

8.3 Ethical Sourcing and Fair Trade
Ethical sourcing is essential to ensure that the communities that rely on these plants for their livelihoods are not exploited. Fair trade practices can help to ensure that local communities receive a fair price for their products and that their rights are respected. This includes respecting traditional knowledge and practices related to plant use and ensuring that these communities have a say in how their resources are used.

8.4 Environmental Certification and Regulations
Environmental certification schemes, such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), can help to ensure that plant harvesting practices are sustainable and do not harm the environment. Regulations and guidelines must be in place to monitor and control the harvesting of medicinal plants to prevent overexploitation and habitat destruction.

8.5 Conservation and Reforestation Efforts
Conservation efforts are vital to protect endangered plant species and their habitats. Reforestation initiatives can help to restore habitats and increase the availability of medicinal plants. This includes planting native species and promoting the growth of diverse plant populations to support a healthy ecosystem.

8.6 Education and Awareness
Raising awareness about the ethical and environmental impacts of plant harvesting is crucial for promoting sustainable practices. Education programs can help to inform consumers, industry professionals, and policymakers about the importance of preserving plant resources and the potential consequences of unsustainable harvesting practices.

8.7 Collaboration and Partnerships
Collaboration between governments, industry, and local communities is essential for developing and implementing effective strategies to address the ethical and environmental impacts of plant harvesting. Partnerships can help to share knowledge, resources, and expertise to promote sustainable practices and protect plant populations.

In conclusion, the ethical and environmental impacts of plant harvesting must be carefully considered and addressed to ensure the long-term availability of medicinal plants and the health of our planet. By adopting sustainable practices, respecting local communities, and promoting biodiversity, we can continue to benefit from the healing properties of plants while preserving the environment for future generations.



9. Future Directions in Plant Medicine Research and Development

9. Future Directions in Plant Medicine Research and Development

As the world continues to grapple with various health challenges, the future of plant medicine research and development holds immense promise. Here are some key areas that are expected to shape the future landscape of plant-based medicine:

1. Genetic Engineering: With advances in genetic engineering, researchers can potentially enhance the medicinal properties of plants or even create entirely new medicinal compounds. This could lead to more effective treatments with fewer side effects.

2. Synthetic Biology: The integration of synthetic biology into plant medicine could allow for the production of complex bioactive compounds that are difficult to extract from natural sources. This could revolutionize the way we produce and consume medicines.

3. Personalized Medicine: As our understanding of genetics and individual variability grows, so does the potential for personalized plant medicine. Tailoring treatments to an individual's genetic makeup could improve efficacy and reduce adverse reactions.

4. Conservation and Sustainable Harvesting: With increased awareness of the environmental impact of plant harvesting, future research will likely focus on sustainable practices and the conservation of medicinal plant species to ensure their availability for future generations.

5. Nanotechnology: The application of nanotechnology in plant medicine could improve the delivery of medicinal compounds, enhance bioavailability, and reduce the required dosage, leading to more effective treatments.

6. Bioinformatics and Big Data: The use of bioinformatics to analyze large datasets can help identify new medicinal plants and compounds. Machine learning algorithms can predict the medicinal properties of plants based on their genetic information.

7. Clinical Trials and Standardization: There is a growing need for more rigorous clinical trials to validate the efficacy and safety of plant-based medicines. Standardization of extracts will also be crucial to ensure consistency and quality.

8. Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration: The future of plant medicine will likely involve collaboration between biologists, chemists, pharmacologists, and other experts to innovate and develop new treatments.

9. Regulatory Frameworks: As plant-based medicines become more mainstream, there will be a need for updated regulatory frameworks that can accommodate the unique aspects of these treatments.

10. Global Health Initiatives: Plant medicine research will increasingly be integrated into global health initiatives, focusing on diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries and underserved populations.

11. Education and Public Awareness: Efforts to educate both the public and healthcare professionals about the benefits and proper use of plant medicines will be crucial to their acceptance and integration into mainstream medicine.

12. Ethnopharmacology: The study of traditional medicine practices can provide valuable insights into new uses for known plants and may reveal entirely new medicinal species.

By exploring these directions, the field of plant medicine can continue to evolve, offering new hope for treating a wide range of health conditions while respecting the natural world and the cultures that have long relied on these remedies.

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